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Sandhyavandana is a way to salute and thank the Sun for his contribution to our existence. It is not just the external sun that Sandhyavandana salutes. It is the sun within. Hindu ideology believes that what is outside is within, so whatever is done externally is also to be internalized.
It involves multiple phases:
- Purification and Conviction: begin with purification - external (bAhya) through water and Internal (abhyantara) through bhagawad nAma and prANAyAma; making the sankalpa (determination)
- Invocation and Welcome: preparing the stage and inviting the auspicious deities within; welcoming; giving the arghya (respectful reception of a "guest")
- Meditation or mantra japa: gAyatri japa is central to the sandhyavandana, and the above preparations are vital before doing gAyatri; offer oblations
- Conclusion: thank all the deities, give a graceful sendoff, re-invite them the next time, extend apologies for any shortcoming and conclude by offering everything to the Lord, Sri Krishna.
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Whether one is pure or impure (bathed or unbathed, wearing the sacred thread or not, sinful or sinless), whatever state (jAgrt/swapna/shushupti, bAla/kaumAra/yuva/vriddApya/mrityA, brahmacharya/grihasta/vAnaprastha/sanyAsa etc) one has reached, one who remembers (remembers, recollects, recites, thinks of, is mindful of) the Lotus Eyed One (the Lord, Sri Krishna, Sriman Narayana), he/she is purified (shines, glows, gleams) from outside and from within.
केशवाय स्वाह | नारायणाय स्वाह | माधवाय स्वाह |
नारायणाय स्वाह – offering to the Lord who pervades us from within (described as one who keeps the blood warm and responsible for circulation; He is described as the eye of the world, the world itself, the indestructible, supreme abode, eteral, unending, soul of the universe, last resort, the ultimate one who is to be known, the root, imperishable, supreme brahman, infinite, limitless, all knowing etc.), i.e. to Lord Sri Krishna
माधवाय स्वाह – offering to the Lord who is sweet like honey (the all attractive, the most fragrant one), i.e. to Lord Sri Krishna.
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विष्ण्वॆ नमः – Salutations to the one who is all pervading, all embracing, i.e. to Lord Sri Krishna
मधुसूदनाय नमः – Salutations to the Lord who slayed Madhu demon, i.e. to Sri Krishna (who like the bee collects honey for the living beings to consume)
त्रिविक्रमाय नमः – Salutations to the Lord who strides over the 3 worlds (bhu, bhvah, suvah; who can push His devotee out of the 3 worlds and the 3 modes of material nature)
वामनाय नमः – Salutations to the Lord who came in the form of a dwarf (complementing trivikrama)
श्रीधराय नमः – Salutations to the Lord of Fortune (one who is all splendor, intellect, fame, glory, grace, luster, virtuousness, excellence; posseses all wealth)
ह्रिशिकॆशाय नमः – Salutations to the Lord of the organ of senses (one who delights, and creates happiness)
पद्मनाभाय नमः – Salutations to the Lotus Navel'd Lord (the causal root of the entire creation)
दामोदराय नमः – Salutations to the Lord with a rope around the waist (Sri Krishna)
संकर्शणाय नमः – Salutations to the Lord who beholds the entire universe (Lord from who all the manifestations or incarnations supposedly happen; Anantashesha, who is born as Lord Balarama) (Sri Krishna)
वासुदॆवाय नमः – Salutations to the Lord of Soul (vAsu: “The Soul”; the soul of the universe; the supreme being), the son of Vasudeva (Sri Krishna)
प्रध्युम्नाय नमः – Salutations to the Lord of Intellect, of love, the per-eminently mighty one, who radiates or illuminates (also, the son of Krishna and Rukmini, and Krishna Himself) (Sri Krishna)
अनिरुद्धाय नमः – Salutations to the Lord one who cannot be suppressed, stopped, confined, i.e. who is self-reliant and self-willed (also, the son of Pradhyumna, said to have close resemblance to his grandfather Sri Krishna )
पुरुशोत्तमाय नमः – Salutations to the Supreme Spirit (highest being, best among all that is) (Sri Krishna)
अधोक्षजाय नमः – Salutations to the Lord who never falls down or dishonored or undermined (Sri Krishna)
नारसिम्हाय नमः – Salutations to the Lord who is nArasimha (man-lion), the great warrior (Sri Krishna)
अच्युताय नमः – Salutations to the Lord who is imperishable, firm, fixed, permanent; almighty being; (Sri Krishna)
जनार्दनाय नमः – Salutations to the Lord who excites, motivates, inspires all that is born; one who annihilates all that is born. (Sri Krishna)
उपेन्द्राय नमः – Salutations to the Lord who as the younger brother of Indra descended as vAmana; who is Indra Himself. (Sri Krishna)
हरये नमः – Salutations to the Lord (also the Lion, Indra, Brahma, beautiful, fire, wind, the sun) (Sri Krishna)
श्री कृष्णाय नमः – Salutations to Lord Sri Krishna (the all attractive; who is in essence all the above names and more).